The four statisticians performed their calculations merely together with the help of hand calculator. Encouraged by popularity of this article in the magazine, replicated and learnt by heart by many players, the originators printed a book “Winning Blackjack”. Nowadays this book is a scarce variation plus it enriches the home library of several professional gamblers.
In 1962 Edward Thorp this time using computer technologies calculate and published in his book Beat The Dealer not only the essential strategy of playing but also card counting. Thorp states that blackjack differs from roulette, craps and other games of chance, the result of each hand in blackjack is dependent upon the last dealing – it really matters which cards drew back form the game and which stayed in the pack. Most of the things calculated by Thorp is still precise, but all the serious modern gamblers should keep reading this novel just for historical interest.
Thorp’s system called “10 count system” was meant for just one pack game which enjoyed great success in all casinos of Nevada. It was tremendously problematic for learning, so all the gamblers gave it up. Nonetheless, Nevada’s casinos restricted some rules, for example, doubling down simply on 11 points. The media told the entire world about it, and Thorp along with his novel became known all around the world along with the casinos that showed themselves to disadvantage had to return former rules. Recognizing that under such circumstances bunches card counters would be attempting to win against the house, operators of gambling houses introduced two procedures – shuffling after withdrawal of the trim card and multi-filled games.
Thorp’s systems was very hard to work with in practice. However, for the computer conference in Vegas in 1963, the match would stay about an identical amount. On a whim, the seminar organizers decided to add a Panel Session on “Using Computers in Games of Chance and Skill.” It was just a whim of the organizers to incorporate a section “Using computers in games of chance and skill”. Thorp was designated as Chairman of the Panel and pros on the various casino games, including blackjack, roulette and baccarat. The room filled up and overflowed with computer gamblers. Countless seminar attendees were pushing and shoving to go into the space.
The bunch, of course, have been brought by Thorp. They were anticipating revelations on the game and expected using his imparted wisdom immediately after the session to make a killing at the blackjack tables.
After one or two more presentations that mostly corrected and altered Thorp’s system, Harvey Dubner was presented. He described the approach. He called the result the High Low Ratio. His presentation was enthusiastically received by the standing room only crowd and he was given a round of applause at its conclusion. Here at last, many were saying, is a method that’s practical, that can actually be used in the real world of casino play. Thorp integrated “high low” system into the 2nd edition of Beat the Dealer published in 1966 and since then over 100 professional publications on blackjack, team games, concealed computers, shuffle tracking and sleepless nights for casino securities all around the globe.